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We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuring these movements, with a view to understanding how we attend to and process the visual information we encounter
Eye tracking as a research tool is now more accessible than ever, and is growing in popularity amongst researchers from a whole host of different disciplines. Usability analysts, sports scientists, cognitive psychologists, reading researchers, psycholinguists, neurophysiologists, electrical engineers, and others, all have a vested interest in eye tracking for different reasons. The ability to record eye-movements has helped advance our science and led to technological innovations. However, the growth of eye tracking in recent years has also presented a variety of challenges - in particular the issue of how to design an eye-tracking experiment, and how to analyse the data.
This book is a much needed comprehensive handbook of eye tracking methodology. It describes how to evaluate and acquire an eye-tracker, how to plan and design an eye tracking study, and how to record and analyse eye-movement data. Besides technical details and theory, the heart of this book revolves around practicality - how raw data samples are converted into fixations and saccades using event detection algorithms, how the different representations of eye movement data are calculated using AOIs, heat maps and scanpaths, and how all the measures of eye movements relate to these processes.
Part I presents the technology and skills needed to perform high-quality research with eye-trackers.
Part II covers the predominant methods applied to the data which eye-trackers record. These include the parsing of raw sample data into oculomotor events, and how to calculate other representations of eye movements such as heat maps and transition matrices.
Part III gives a comprehensive outline of the measures which can be calculated using the events and representations described
in Part II. This is a taxonomy of the measures available to eye-tracking researchers, sorted by type of movement of the eyes and type of analysis.
For anyone in the sciences considering conducting research involving eye-tracking, this book will be an essential reference work.
video-oculographic eye-tracking systems, and how to derive and use measures that give
insights into oculomotor, cognitive and neurobiological processes. In this chapter, we will introduce the overarching concepts of the book and how they have
been laid-out into parts and chapters.
Bayesian Multiple Target Tracking
Using the Bayesian inference framework, this book enables the reader to design and develop mathematically sound algorithms for dealing with tracking problems involving multiple targets, multiple sensors, and multiple platforms. It shows how non-linear Multiple Hypothesis Tracking and the Theory of United Tracking are successful methods when multiple target tracking must be performed without contacts or association. With detailed examples illustrating the developed concepts, algorithms, and approaches, the book helps the reader track when observations are non-linear functions of target site, when the target state distributions or measurements error distributions are not Gaussian, when notions of contact and association are merged or unresolved among more than one target, and in low data rate and low signal to noise ratio situations.
Cowboy Life On The Sidetrack
Frank Benton wrote this popular book that continues to be widely read today despite its age.